Scaffold for Tissue Engineering


Bioscaffold Review


"Every 30 seconds, a patient dies from a disease that could be treated with tissue replacement."
This shocking observation, presented by Dr. Anthony Atala, emphasizes the need for regenerative technology.


                One improvement which will assist in the evolution of regenerative technology is the investigation of bioscaffolds. Bioscaffold technology is expected to revolutionize the medical industry in the next decade by providing a rapid solution to tissue replacement needs. Utilizing specialized materials, a 3D architecture is created with highly specific parameters, such as surface properties or porosity, to encourage desired cell activity and cause tissue growth.

                 Bioscaffolding is the use of biocompatible and bioresorbable materials to construct a 3d structure comparable to the implant tissue area, in order to promote tissue regeneration and injury recovery. The structure is seeded with native differentiable cells and cell adhesion proteins in order to encourage cell adhesion and tissue regeneration. The matrix is also consistently porous, which further promotes cell adhesion and differentiation at a controlled rate. The scaffold must be designed to withstand and effectively transfer local stresses evenly across the area of implantation during the degradation period. Also, the degradation properties are catered to match the cell differentiation rates and extracellular matrix deposition rates of the implant site in order to provide continuous support throughout the repair process. Materials used for the scaffold construction must be chosen appropriately to minimize adverse reaction and maximize cell adhesion and differentiation.

                 Bioscaffold is mainly utilized in bone and cartilage regeneration. However, it is also successfully implemented in areas of skin and muscle regeneration and possibilities for organ regeneration are being researched. An example of its use in bone regeneration is in the fracture repair. If the damage is substantial, there may not be enough bone present to reform the original structure. In order to repair the area quickly and effectively, a scaffold, which has been seeded with the appropriate cells, may be implanted at the site using a bioadhesive. This scaffold will degrade over time and promote the growth of new bone.

                 The importance of this technology is evident in almost any medical procedure involving organ repair or replacement. While a regular transplant would require both time on an organ waiting list and extended recovery time with the possibility of rejection, bioscaffold use mitigates these obstacles. Because the scaffold is seeded, or loaded, with stem cells native to the patient’s body, the chance of rejection is greatly decreased. Also, the tissue can be quickly grown on the bioscaffold, avoiding the risky wait of an organ waiting list. The use of a bioscaffold tailored to the repair region decreases the time necessary for the cells to repair surrounding tissue, greatly decreasing recovery time. The culmination of these advantages ultimately leads to a faster and easier recovery from an expedited replacement surgery.

                 The implementation of bioscaffolds for regeneration technology will not only revolutionize the patient experience, but it will expand the medical job market tremendously. Within the next decade, bioscaffold use will give rise to the need for organ and tissue designers, tissue and organ preparation experts, and specialized surgeons experienced in bioscaffold implantation. This new industrial expansion will greatly stimulate the job market and make exciting and exploratory jobs available.



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