Scaffold for Tissue Engineering


Bioscaffold Types

What are typical types of bioscaffolds?

There are four main construction materials for bioscaffolds:

Each is specialized for the area of implementation and intended purpose. Natural polymer based scaffolds are usually made of collagen, fibrin, or other biologically derived materials. They can be implemented in most areas of regeneration but are mainly utilized in cartilage growth. Limitations include the low supply of natural polymers and the extensive processes of collection and sterilization.   Synthetic based polymer scaffolds are composed of polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG). These materials can be easily synthesized and have well defined characteristics. They can also be linked together to yield desirable properties, making them ideal for most biological applications. Hydrogels are covalently crosslinked hydrophilic polymer matrices which swell when introduced to water. This allows for the incorporation of cells into the material which can be encapsulated along with various growth and binding factors. This type of bioscaffold is most useful in cartilage regeneration when constructed with synthetic polymers. Unfortunately, the toxicity of the crosslinks is of concern as well as the lack of degradability in commonly used polymers. The last type of bioscaffold, the composite based scaffold, is the combination of any of the previously stated methods as well as other available alternatives. This allows for optimum efficiency as the best attributes of different materials can be utilized together in a single structure. This approach can be used in most areas of regeneration and has less limitations than the other methods.




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